Potential of Tempe (Rhyzopus.sp) as a Source of Phytoestrogens to Activate and Accelerate Stem Cells in Cataract Lens Repair and Metanolic Content of Garlic Extract (Allium sativum) as the Latest Therapy in Diabetic Cataracts

Ihsan Otriami, Devin Mahendika, Dio Jainata

Abstract


Cataracts are turbidity lenses that are normally transparent and light is passed through to the retina, which is caused by various things resulting in impaired vision. One of the causes of cataract is diabetes mellitus which manifests clinically as hyperglycemia. Various therapies have been developed to deal with cataracts. However, the therapy is a definitive form of surgery which causes long-term complications in the form of blindness. One of the therapeutic modalities developed today is stem cell therapy. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells and have high potential to become other cells. Stem cells can differentiate to repair damaged lentic capsules and the formation of subepithelial lamellar fibers. Stem cells proliferate and migrate will be assisted by estrogen. However, the use of estrogen often causes bad side effects for the body. So, estrogen replacement is needed which has the same effect but does not produce side effects.

Tempe is a typical Indonesian food that has isoflavonoid content. Isoflavonoids are able to function as phytoestrogens in the human body and have the same function as 17β-estradiol. In stem cells, phytoestrogens will play a role in activating paracrine actin (Akt) and stromal cell derived-1 (SDF-1) signals. Phytoestrogens will accelerate the rate of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) / induced pluripotential stem cell (iPSC) and bind to the right receptors, so as to increase the work effectiveness of stem cells. Meanwhile, in diabetic cataract conditions the potential for garlic methanolic has recently been developed in relation to antioxidant effects, effective hypoglycemic and scavenging oxidative stress factors such as H2O2 and decreasing protein fraction in the lens due to protein insolubility.

 

Keywords : Tempe, Stem Cell, Phytoestrogens, Garlic, and Metanolic.


Full Text:

PDF

References


DAFTAR PUSTAKA

MHS. Ermalena. 2017. Indikator Kesehatan SDGs di Indonesia. The 4th ICTOH, Jakarta.

WHO . Visual impairment and blindness. World Health Organization. 2014.http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs282/en/-Diakses Mei 2019.

American Academy of Ophthalmology . Lens and cataract. Section 11. Singapore: Basic and Clinical Science Cource, 2014; pp: 166-203.

Ilyas S. Ilmu Penyakit Mata, Edisi Kelima. Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia. 2014.

Lepkowski JM et al: Epidemiology of cataract in South India. Mimeograph cited in Drummond MF: Economic aspects of cataract blindness. In Kupfer C, Gillen T (eds): World Blindness and Its Prevention. Vol 4. International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness, Haywards Heath, England, 2010.

Natban Cangdon et al. Prevalence of the Different Types of Age-Related Cataract in an World Population. IOVS. 2015;42.

Azwar. Kebijakan Pelayanan Kesehatan untuk Low Vision. (13 Mei 2019). Available from http://www.ditplb.or.id.

Sirlan F. Faktor Risiko Buta Katarak Usia Produktif : Tinjauan khusus terhadap Enzim Glutation Reduktase dan Riboflavis Darah. 2016.

Kemenkes RI. Riset Kesehatan Dasar Indonesia tahun 2013. Kemenkes RI. 2013;254.

Khurana aK. Community Ophthalmology in Comprehensive Ophthalmology. Fourth Edition. Chapter 8. New Delhi. New Age Internasional Limit Publisher;. 2007:167-79.

Sharanjeet-kaur et al. Risk Factors For Cataract: A Case Study at National University of Malaysia Hospital. Sains Kesehatan Malaysia 2016;4:85-98.

Sinha R et al. Etiopathogenesis of cataract: jurnal Review. Indian Journal of Ophtalmology 2019;57:248-9.

Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Lewis Farr A, et al. Protein measurement with folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem. 2016;193:265–75.

Anderson G, Black C, Dunn E, Alonso J, Christian N. Willingness to pay to shorten waiting time for cataract surgery. 2016;128: 274-34.www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9314689.

Libby P: The vascular Biology of fitoestrogen dalam Braunwald’s Disease.A textbook of Medicine 9thed. Saunders, Philadelphia, 2017.

de Iongh RU, Wederell E, Lovicu FJ, McAvoy JW. Transforming growth factor-beta-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the lens: a model for cataract formation. Cells Tissues Organs. 2015;179:43–55.

Ahmad MS, Ahmed N. Antiglycation properties of aged garlic extract: possible role in prevention of diabetic complications. J Nutr. 2016;136:796S–8S.

Eva PR, Whitcher JP. Vaughan & Asbury’s General Ophthalmology. 24th ed. USA : Mc Graw-Hill; 2017.

Guyton AC, Hall EH. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 15th ed. Philadelphia : W.B. Saunders Company ; 2016.

Kanski JJ, Bowling B. Clinical Ophthalmology : A Systemic Approach. 7th ed. China: Elsevier : 2011.

Jaffe NS, Horwitz J. Lens and Cataract. In : (Podos SM, Yanoff M, eds) Textbook of Ophthalmology. Gower Medical Publishing, New York.2017. 1:1 – 8.

Gondhowiardjo TD. Aktivitas Enzim Aldehid Dehidrogenase pada Lensa Katarak Diabetik dan Non Diabetes. Ophthalmologica Indonesiana. 2016. 16 (2) : 118 – 124.

Richard S, Tamas C, Sell DR, Monnier VM. Tissue-specific effects of aldose reductase inhibition on fluorescence and cross-linking of extracellular matrix in chronic galactosemia. Relationship to pentosidine cross-links. Diabetes 2011.40 (8) : 1049 – 1056.

Lee AYW, Chung SSM. Contribution of polyol pathway to oxidative stress in diabetic cataract. The FASEB Journal 2014. 13 : 23 – 30.

Lewis S, Karrer J, Saleh S, et al,. Synthesis and evaluation of novel aldose reductase inhibitors: effect on lens protein kinase C. Molecular Vision 2015. 7: 164 - 71.

Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC. Oxygen is a toxic gas, an introduction to oxygen toxicity and reactive oxygen species. In : Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press New York.2016: 1 - 350.

Suryohudoyo P. Oksigen, anti oksidan dan radikal bebas. Kapita Selecta Ilmu Kedokteran.Molekular. Edisi 1. Informedika, Jakarta. 2015: 31 – 47.

Gillery P, Monboisse JC, Maquart FX, Borel JP. Aging Mechanisms of Proteins. Diabetes Metab. 2015. 17 (1) : 1 – 16.

Yan H, Harding JJ. Glycation induced inactivation and loss of antigenicity of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Biochem J 2017.328 : 599 – 605.

Alan WS,. Advanced glycation : an important pathological event in diabetic and age related ocular disease. Br J Ophthalmol 2016. 85 : 746 – 753.

Turk Z, Misur I, Turk N. Temporal Association between Lens Protein Glycation and Cataract Development in Diabetic Rats. Acta Diabetol. 2017.34 (1) : 49 – 54.

Djauhari, T. Sel Punca. Jurnal Saintik aMedika. 2016.6 (13) : 91-96.

Zeisberg M, Hanai J, Sugimoto H, et al. BMP-7 counteracts TGF-beta1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and reverses chronic renal injury. Nat Med. 2013;9:964–968.

Ludwig TE, Levenstein ME, Jones JM, Berggren WT, Mitchen ER, et al. Derivation of human embryonic stem cells in defined conditions. Nat Biotechnology 2017;24: 185–187.

Choung MG, Baek IY, Kang ST, Han WY, Shin DC, Moon HP, et al. Isolation and determination of anthocyanins in seed coats of black soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). J Agric Food Chem 2018;49:5848–5851.

Iida H, Nakamura Y, Matsumoto H, Takeuchi Y, Harano S, Ishihara M, et al. Effect of black-currant extract on negative lens-induced ocular growth in chicks. Ophthalmic Res 2017;44:242–250.

Fursova A, Gesarevich OG, Gonchar AM, Trofimova NA, Kolosova NG. [Dietary supplementation with bilberry extract prevents macular degeneration and cataracts in senesce-accelerated OXYS rats]. Adv Gerontol 2015;16: 76–79.

Papaconstantinou J. Molecular aspects of lens cell differentiation. Science 2019;156:338–346.

Cohen-Boulakia F, Valensi PE, Boulahdour H, Lestrade R, Dufour-Lamartinie JF, Hort-Legrand C, et al. In vivo sequential study of skeletal muscle capillary permeability in diabetic rats: effect of anthocyanosides. Metabolism 2016;49:880–885.

Duthie GG, Duthie SJ, Kyle JA. Plant polyphenols in cancer and heart disease: implications as nutritional antioxidants. Nutr Res Rev 2018;13:79–106.

Wiyasa, I. W. A., Norahmawati, E., Soehartono. Pengaruh isoflavonegenistein dan daidzeinekstrak tokbi (Puerarialobata) strainKangean terhadap jumlah osteoblas dan osteoklasRattusNovergicusWistarhipoestrogenik. Jurnal Obstetri Ginekologi Indonesia. 2018; 32 (3): 148-152.

Gareus R, Kotsaki E, Xanthousa S, Made I, Kardakaris R, Poly-kratis A. Endothelial Cell-Specific NF-kB Inhibition Pro-tects Mice from Atherosclerosis. Cell Metabolism 2018; 8: 372-383.

Manolov DEW, Koenig V, Hombach J, Torzewski. C-Reactive Protein and Athero-sclerosis.is There Any Causal Link?. Histology and Histo-pathology 2013; 18: 1189-1193.

Jayaprakasam B, Vareed SK, Olson LK, Nair MG. Insulin secretion by bioactive anthocyanins and anthocyanidins present in fruits. J Agric Food Chem 2015;53:28–31.

Chyu KY, Zhao X, Reyes OS, Babbidge SM, Dimayuga PC, Yano J. Immunization Using An Apo B-100 Related Epitope Reduces Atherosclerosis and Plaque Inflammation in Hyper-cholesterolemic Apo E (-/-) Mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2015; 338: 1982-9.

Guo H, Ling W, Wang Q, Liu C, Hu Y, Xia M. Cyanidin 3-glucoside protects 3T3-L1 adipocytes against H2O2- or TNF-alpha-induced insulin resistance by inhibiting c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation. Biochem Pharmacol 2018; 75:1393–1401.

Zhang B, Kang M, Xie Q, Xu B, Sun C, Chen K, et al. Anthocyanins from Chinese bayberry extract protect beta cells from oxidative stress-mediated injury via HO-1 upregulation. J Agric Food Chem 2019;59:537–545.

Speciale A, Canali R, Chirafisi J, Saija A, Virgili F, Cimino F. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside protection against TNF-alphainduced endothelial dysfunction: involvement of nuclear factor-kappaB signaling. J Agric Food Chem 2019;58: 12048–12054.

Bhatt, H., Kshitij, A., & Prem, S. In vitro Anti-inflammatory Activity of Different Extracts of Allium sativum. Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research. 2015;1(2): 61-64.

Johnson, M., Oluremi, N.O., & Odetunde, S.K. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties ofAqueous Garlic (Allium sativum) Extractagainst Staphylococcus aureus andPseudomonas aeruginosa. British Microbiology Research Jornal. 2016;14(1):1-11.

Wei Z, Lau BHS. Garlic inhibits free radical generation and augments antioxidant enzyme activity in vascular endothelial cells. Nutr Res. 2018;18:61–70.

Ramana BV, Raju TN, Kumar VV, Reddy PUM. Defensive role of quercetin against imbalances of calcium, sodium, and potassium in galactosemic cataract. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2017;119:35–41.

Shukla N, Moitra JK, Trivedi RC. Determination of lead, zinc, potassium, calcium, copper and sodium in human cataract lenses. Sci Total Environ. 2016;181:161–5.

Saxena P, Saxena AK, Cui XL, et al. Transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbate in human cataract extracts: possible role of advanced glycation end products. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci.2019;41:1473–81.

Li-Na H, Yi-Qun L, Xiu-Mei L, et al. Puerarin decreases lens epithelium cell apoptosis induced partly by peroxynitrite in diabetic rats. Acta Physiologica Sinica 2016;58:584–92.

Zhao C, Shichi H. Prevention of acetaminophen-induced cataract by a combination of diallyl disulfide and N-acetylcysteine. J Ocular Pharmacol Ther. 2018;14:345–55.

Kubo E, Urakami T, Fatma N, et al. Polyol pathway-dependent osmotic and oxidative stresses in aldose reductase-mediated apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells: role of AOP2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;314:1050–6.

Jackson R, McNeil B, Taylor C, et al. Effect of aged garlic extract on caspase-3 activity in vitro. Nutr Neurosci. 2012;5:287–90.

Rahman K, Lowe GM. Garlic and cardiovascular diseases a critical review. J Nutr. 2016;136:736S–40S.

Eidi A, Eidi M, Esmaeili E. Antidiabetic effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Phyto Med. 2016;13:624–9.

Sood DR, Chhokar V, Shilpa. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract on degree of hydration, fructose, sulphur and phosphorus contents of rat eyelens and intestinal absorption of nutrients.Indian J Clin Biochem. 2013;18:190–6.

Chaverri JP, Campos ONM, Lombardo RA, et al. Reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity of different cooked garlic preparations. Life Sci. 2016;78:761–70.

Suryanarayana P, Saraswat M, Mrudula T, et al. Curcumin and turmeric delay streptozotocin-induced diabetic cataract in rats. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;46:2092–9.

Hayman S, Kinoshita JH. Isolation and properties of lens aldose reductase. J Biol Chem. 2019;240:877–82.

Gerlach U, Hiby W. Sorbitol dehydrogenase. In: Bergmeyer HU, editors. Methods of enzymatic analysis, 2nd ed. Academic, New York; 2017.

Bergmayer HU, Bernt E. Glucose determination with glucose oxidase and peroxidase. In: Bergmeyer HU, editors. Methods of enzymatic analysis, 2nd ed. Academic, New York; 2017.

Templar J, Kon SP, Milligan TP, et al. Increased plasma malondialdehyde levels in glomerular disease as determined by a fully validated HPLC method. Nephrol Dial Transp. 2019;14:946–51.

Uchida K, Kanematsu M, Sakai K, et al. Protein-bound acrolein: npotential markers for oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.2018;95:4882–7.

Hissin PJ, Hilf R. A fluorometric for determination of oxidized and reduced glutathione in tissues. Anal Biochem. 2016;74:214–26.

Marklund S, Marklund G. Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur J Biochem. 2014;47:469–74.

Martinez JI, Launay JM, Dreux C. A sensitive fluorimetric microassay for the determination of glutathione peroxidase activity. Application to human blood platelets. Anal Biochem. 2019;98:184.

Raju TN, Kanth VR, Reddy PUM, et al. Influence of kynurenines in pathogenesis of cataract formation in tryptophan-deficient regimen in Wistar rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2017;45:543–8.

Roy K, Harris F, Dennison SR, et al. Effects of streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetes mellitus on protein and ion concentrations in ocular tissues of the rat. Int J Diabetes Metab. 2015;13:154–8.

Tang D, Borchman D, Yappert MC, et al. Influence of age, diabetes, and cataract on calcium, lipid calcium, and protein– calcium relationships in human lenses. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2018;44:2059–66.

Singh N, Kamath V, Rajini PS. Attenuation of hyperglycemia and associated biochemical parameters in STZ-induced diabetic rats by dietary supplementation of potato peel powder. Clin Chim Acta. 2015;353:165–75.

Inomata M, Hayashi M, Shumiya S, et al. Involvement of inducible nitric oxide synthase in cataract formation in Shumiya cataract rat. Curr Eye Res. 2019;23:307–11.

Cekic O, Bardak Y. Lenticular calcium,magnesiumand iron levels in diabetic rats and verapamil effect. Ophthalmic Res. 2018;30:107–12.

Ahmad MS, Ahmed N. Antiglycation properties of aged garlic extract: possible role in prevention of diabetic complications. JNutr. 2016;136:796S–8S.

Dirsch VM, Kiemer AK, Wagner H, et al. Effect of allicin and ajoene, two compounds of garlic, on inducible nitric oxide synthase. Atherosclerosis. 2018;139:333–9.

Qi R, Wang Z. Pharmacological effects of garlic extract. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2013;24:62–3.

Wei Z, Lau BHS. Garlic inhibits free radical generation and augments antioxidant enzyme activity in vascular endothelial cells. Nutr Res. 2018;18:61–70.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.26618/aimj.v3i1.2746

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Ihsan Otriami, Devin Mahendika, Dio Jainata

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Flag Counter