Eka Fatmawati, Andi Qashas Rahman, Murni Mahmud


This paper aims to identify and investigate questioning strategies used by teachers in EFL classroom interaction The data were collected by qualitative research in 2015 from a university teacher of STKIP YPUP Makassar by using classroom observation and interview the teachers and students. To analyze the data, the researcher used three key stages by Miles and Huberman (1994) namely data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/verification. The findings show that the teacher applied questioning-planning strategies, question-controlling strategies, and nomination strategies. There was a new questioning strategy that was found, named endless-questioning strategy. The teacher applied his questioning strategies by asking questions to an individual student, pair students, and the whole class. The teacher mostly applied it to an individual student and the whole class rather than to pair students.


Teacher’s Questioning Strategies; Teacher Talk; Classroom Interaction

Full Text:



Brualdi, A. C. 1998. Classroom questions. Practical Assessment Research & Evaluation, 6(6). Available at:

http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=6&n=6 (Accessed 20 Jan 2015).

Carin, A.A. and Sund, R.B. 1971. Developing Questioning Techniques. Columbus. Ohio: Charles E. Merril Publishing Co.

Cotton, K. 2001. Classroom questioning. School Improvement Research Series (SIRS). Available at:

http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/3/cu5.html (Accessed).

Cooper, J.M. 1986. Classroom Teaching Skill. Lexington: Mass D.C- Heath.

Ellis, J. 2003. Socratic Seminar: Creating a Community of Inquiry. Available at http://web000.greece.k12.ny.us

Ellis, R. 1997. The Study of Second Language Acquisition.

Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.

_______. 1990. Understanding Second Language Acquisition. New York: Oxford University Press.

_______. 2008. The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: OUP.

Gall, M. 1984. Synthesis of Research on Teachers’ Questioning. Educational Leadership. Bandung: Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Unpublished Thesis.

Groisser, P. 1964 How to Use The Fine Art of Questioning. Englewood Cliffs. N.J: Prentice Hall

Husnaini. 2005. Teacher Talk and Learner Talk in Classroom Interaction (An Interaction Analysis to An English Language Class at SMPN 29 Bandung). Bandung, UPI: Unpublished Research Paper.

Hyman, R.J. 1979. Strategic Questioning. Englewood Cliff: Prentice.

__________. 1980. Improving Discussion Leadership. New York: Teachers College Press.

Johnson, J. H: Markle, G. C: Halley, O. 1987. About Questioning in the Classroom. Middle School Journal

Long, M.H and Sato, C. 1983. Classroom Talk Discourse Forms and Functions of Teacher’s Questions. Classroom Oriented Research in Second Language Acquisition.

Ma, Xiaoyan. 2008. The Skills of Teacher’s Questioning in English Classes. In International Education Studies, Vol. 1(4).

Miles, M. & Huberman. 1994. Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications

Morgan, N, and Saxton, J. 1991. Teaching, Questioning, and Learning. New York: Routledge

Nishimura, T. 2012. Teacher’s Questioning Techniques Employed in Japanese Senior High School’s English Class and The Perception of Three Japanese English Teachers. Thesis, MSc TESOL (Edinburg University.

Nunan, D. and Lamb. 1996. The Self Directed Teacher. Cambridge: CUP.

Nunan, D. 1992. Research Method in Language Learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

_________. 1986. Understanding Language Classroom. A guide to for teacher-initiated action. New York: Prentice-Hall.

Perrott, E. 1986. Effective Teaching: A Practical Guide to Improve Your Teaching. London: Longman Ltd.

Richards, J. C. 2002. Theories of Teaching in Language Teaching. In: J. C. Richards and W. A. Renandya (Eds.), Methodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology of Current Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.19 25.

Richards and Lockharts. 1994. Reflective Teaching in Second Language Classroom. USA: Cambridge University Press

___________________. 1996. Reflective Teaching in Second Language Classroom. USA: Cambridge University Press

Richards, J.C. Platt, J and Platt, H. 1992. Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics. England: Longman Group UK Limited.

Rosenshine, B. 1971. Teaching behaviours and student achievement. London: Foundation for Educational Research in England and Wales.

Seime, K. 2002. An Exploration of The Relationship among Types of Teacher’s Questions, Students Proficiency, and Wait-Time. A case study. The Ethiopian Journal of Education. XXII, 2:1:32-19.

Tanaka, S. 2011. The Power of Asking in Getting L2Classroom Activated. Japanese title Communicate na eikokyoiku ni okeru hatumon ryoku. ARCLE Review.

Thompson, G. 1997. Training teachers to ask questions. Teaching Journal, 50, pp.99-105.

Tsui, A.B. M. 1995. Introducing Classroom Interaction. London: Penguin

____________. 2001. Classroom interaction. In: R. Carton and D. Nunan (Eds.), The Cambridge Guide to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.120-125.

Ur, P. 1996a. A Course in Language Teaching Practice and theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ur, P. 1996b. A Course in Language Teaching. Oxford: OUP.

Wood, A.T, Carol, H. 2001. The Case Study Method: Critical Thinking Enhanced by Effective Teacher’ Questioning Skill. Annual International Conference of the World Association for Case Method Research & Application, Sweden.

Xuerong, F. 2012. Exploring English Teachers’ Classroom Strategies: A Case Study of EFL Teachers in China.

Young, R. 1992. Critical Theory and Classroom Talk. Clevedon: Multilingual Matter Ltd.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26618/exposure.v9i1.3552


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

© All rights reserved 2023. Exposure: Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Inggris (ISSN Print: 2252-7818), (ISSN Online: 2502-3543)

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.