EPSON (EARLY DETECTION FOR PARKINSON DISEASE) TINJAUAN PUSTAKA DISBIOSIS GUT MICROBIAL SEBAGAI POTENSI DETEKSI DINI PARKINSON MELALUI PEMERIKSAAN FESES

Qanita Adzkia Novindra, Fildzah Ghaisani Alifah, Nadia Alfi Syariafah

Abstract


Parkinson disease (PD) merupakan salah satu penyakit neuro degeneratif yang tidak dapat disembuhkan dengan manifetasi klinis berupa gangguan pada gerak motorik. Saat ini diagnosis pada penyakit parkinson masih didasarkan pada gejala motorik yang timbul. Deteksi dini pada PD dibutuhkan sehingga pasien akan mendapat penanganan sejak dini untuk mencegah patogenesis kerusakan neuron di substansia nigra. Berdasarkan penelitian, diketahui bahwa gejala berupa disfungsi usus muncul 5-7 tahun sebelum terjadi gangguan motorik pada pasien PD. Timbulnya disfungsi usus ini memiliki keterkaitan dengan ketidak seimbangan komposisi mikrobiota usus (GM). Tujuan dari literatur review ini adalah melakukan studi literatur mengenai hubungan antara komposisi GM dengan patogenesis parkinson disease sebagai dasar deteksi dini parkinson disease. Metode yang digunakan dalam proses literature review ini adalah metode PRISMA, dimana dari 261 sumber awal yang sudah penulis dapatkan sesuai dengan keyword menggunakan metode Boolean, terdapat 229 sumber yang di eksklusi karena tidak memenuhi kriteria inklusi yang ditetapkan penulis. Dari hasil dan pembahasan didapatkan bahwa disbiosis bakteri pada gastrointestinal tract adalah proses yang mengawali patogenesis dari PD. Hal ini dibuktikan dengan adanya peningkatan dua kali lipat konsentrasi Indoxyl Sulfat urin (indikator disbiosis mikroba) pada pasien. Terdapat pola unik perubahan komposisi mikroba saluran pencernaan, yaitu perubahan β- diversity, peningkatan pertumbuhan koloni bakteri genus Akkermansia, Genus Lactobacillus, dan Famili Enterobacteriaceae;dan penurunan pertumbuhan Genus Faecalibacterium, dan Genus Provotella. Kesimpulan yang didapatkan adalah perubahan komposisi bakteri di saluran pencernaan merupakan salah satu pemicu yang mengawali patogenesis PD dan bahwa pola unik perubahan komposisi gut microbial memiliki potensi untuk dijadikan deteksi dini Parkinson Disease.


Keywords


Parkinson disease, Gut Microbial, Disbiosis, Early Detection

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26618/aimj.v4i1.4980

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