Ratna Dewi


Lexical complexity refers to the various different words employed in the introductions of the undergraduate students’ research articles. The implementation of lexical complexity describes the writers’ overall development of lexical complexity use in the target language. This study aims to find out the employment of lexical complexity in the introductions of undergraduate students’ research articles. It utilized a quantitative design through corpus based analysis.The corpus studied consisted of 134 introductions of undergraduate students’ research articles. The data were analyzed using Web-based Lexical Complexity Analyzer. Then to decide the level of complexity applied in the students’ articles, the results were compared to the lexical complexity of Chinese learners’ oral narratives. The findings show that lexical density, lexical sophistication, and lexical variation are high  except for verb variation, noun variation, adjective variation, adverb variation and modifier variation (cf. Lu, 2010, 2012; Ai & Lu, 2013). It is expected that this article could provide information about the lexical complexity which is needed to be improved in the undergraduate students’ research articles.


lexical complexity; research articles; undergraduate students;

Full Text:



Afini & Cahyono, B.Y. 2012. The Lexical Richness in Narrative Texts of XI Graders of MAN 3 Malang. English Language Education, 1(1). (Online), (http://journal-online.um.ac.id), accessed February 23, 2013.

Ai, H. & Lu, X. 2010. A Web-based System for Automatic Measurement of Lexical Complexity. Paper presented at 27th Annual Symposium of the Computer Assisted Language Concortium (CALICO-10). (Online), (http://www.personal.psu.edu/hua126/papers/calico10_ai_lu.pdf), accessed February 23, 2013.

Brown, H.D. 2007(3rd ed.). Teaching by Principles: an Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New York: San Fransisco State University. (http://moodle.adaptland.it/pluginfile.php/4930/mod_resource/content/1/329WP_08_71.pdf), accessed March 23, 2013.

Francis, W.S., Romo, L.F. & Gelman, R. 2002. Syntactic Structure, Grammatical Accuracy, and Content in Second-Language Writing: An Analysis of Skill Learning and On-line Processing. Bilingual Sentence Processing, (Online) (academics.utep.edu/Portals/321/.../Francis/FrancisRomoGelman02.pdf), accessed March 01, 2013.

Hinkel, E. (2003). Simplicity without Elegance: Features of Sentences in L2 and L1 Academic Texts. TESOL Quarterly, 37: 275–301. (Online), (http://www.elihinkel.org/dowloads.htm), accessed March 01, 2013.

Hinkel, E. 2005. Analyses of second language (L2) Texts and What can be Learnt from them. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 615_628. (Online) (http://www.elihinkel.org/dowloads.htm), accessed March 01, 2013.

Hinkel, E. 2011. What Research on Second Language Writing Tells us and What it doesn’t. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning, 2: 523-538 New York: Routlege. (http://www.elihinkel.org/dowloads.htm), accessed March 01, 2013.

Larsen-Freeman, D. 2006. The Emergence of Complexity, Fluency, and Accuracy in the Oral and Written Production of Five Chinese Learners of English. Applied Linguistics, 27(4): 590-619. @Oxford University Press. (Online), (www.pebc.org/.../Larsen-Freeman-Complxty-Fluncy-Accrcy-in-Oral-Wt...)

Laufer, B. 1994. The Lexical Profile of Second Language Writing: Does it Chang over Time?. RELC Journal, 25, 21-33.

Laufer, B & Nation, P. 1995.Vocabulary Size and Use: Lexical Richness in L2 Written Production. Applied Linguistics, 16 (3): 307-322. Oxford University Press.

Lu, X. 2012. The Relationship of Lexical Richness to the Quality of ESL Learners’ Oral Narratives. The Modern Language Journal. 96(2): 190-208.

Nation, I.S.P. 2001. Learning Vocabulary in Another Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Naves, T. 2007. Analytical Measurers of Learners’ Written Language. Barcelona: University of Barcelona, English Department. (Online), (www.ub.edu/GRAL/pubs/Celaya&Naves2009Writing.pdf).

Šišková, Z. 2012. Lexical Richness in EFL Students’ Narratives. University of Reading: Language Studies Working Papers. ISSN 2040-3461, 4: 26-36. (Online)

(http://www.readingconnect.net/web/files/english-language-and-literature/elal_lswp_vol_4_siskova.pdf ), accessed 13/04/2013.

Wolfe-Quintero, K., Inagaki, S., & Kim, H.Y. 1998. Second Language Development in Writing: Measurers of Fluency, Accuracy, & Complexity. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

© All rights reserved 2019. Exposure: Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Inggris (ISSN Print: 2252-7818), (ISSN Online: 2502-3543)

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.