The Rise of Insurgency in Ghana: Developing Fertile Grounds?

Emmanuel Siaw, Eric Elikem


Ghana can largely be described as a nation that has enjoyed relative peace and stability in a sub region bedevilled with violence and instability. However, this relative peace and stability has been overhyped leading to the neglect of certain conflict-prone variables that can prong the country into an insurgency; as has been experienced in many African countries. Analysing this from the perspective of the human needs theory, coupled with conducting a survey, the study finds that a sizeable number of Ghanaians are deficient in access to their basic needs. Consequently, it predisposes citizens to insurgent ideas and make them susceptible to insurgency. Thus the study recommends that the Ghanaian government must make provisions for achievement of basic needs, security presence and engagement of people in the governance system a priority to prevent the possibilities of the rise of insurgency in Ghana.


Insurgency; Basic Needs; Fertile Grounds

Full Text:



Berkowitz, L. (1989). Frustration-aggression hypothesis: examination and reformulation. Psychological bulletin, 106(1), 59.

Burton, J. (1990). Conflict: Human needs theory. Springer.

Bujra, A. (2002). African conflicts: Their causes and their political and social environment. Development Policy Management Forum.

CIA Report (2009). Guide to the analysis of insurgency. File No C05332177 released 5th January 2009.

Collier, P. (2006). Economic causes of civil conflict and their implications for policy (pp. 1-23). Washington, DC: World Bank.

Crocker, C. A., Hampson, F. O., & Aall, P. R. (Eds.). (2007). Leashing the dogs of war: conflict management in a divided world. US Institute of Peace Press.

Doucey, M. (2015). Understanding the root causes of conflicts: why it matters for international crisis management. The Journal.

Draman, R. (2003, May). Poverty and Conflict in Africa: Explaining a complex relationship. In Expert Group meeting on Africa-Canada Parliamentary Strengthening Program Addis Ababa, May (pp. 19-23).

Everton, S. (2010). Social Movement Theory. Gangs and Guerrillas: Ideas from Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism.

Freeman, M. (2008). Democracy, Al Qaeda, and the causes of terrorism: A strategic analysis of US policy. Studies in conflict & terrorism, 31(1), 40-59.

Fording, R. C. (1997). The conditional effect of violence as a political tactic: Mass insurgency, welfare generosity, and electoral context in the American states. American Journal of Political Science, 1-29.

Gurr, T. R. (2000). Peoples versus states: Minorities at risk in the new century. US Institute of Peace Press.

Hobbes, T. (1960). Leviathan: Or the Matter, Forme and Power of a Commonwealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil. Ed. with an Introd. by Michael Oakeshott. DISCOZUU.

Ikejiaku, B. V. (2009). The relationship between poverty, conflict and development. Journal of Sustainable Development, 2(1), 15.

Marker, S. (2003). “Unmet Human Needs.” Beyond Intractability, eds, Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess, Boulder: Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado.

Mbowura, K. (2014). Inter-Ethnic Conflicts and their Impact on National Development, Integration and Social Cohesion: A Study of the Nawuri-Gonja Conflict in Northern Ghana. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4(1), 108-18.

Moghadam, A., Berger, R., & Beliakova, P. (2014). Say terrorist, think insurgent: Labeling and analyzing contemporary terrorist actors. Perspectives on Terrorism, 8(5).

Murshed, M., & Tadjoeddin, M. Z. (2007). Reappraising the Greed and Grievance Explanations for Violent Internal Conflict. MICROCON research Working Paper 2, Brighton: MICROCON.

Paul, C., Clarke, C. P., Grill, B., & Dunigan, M. (2013). Paths to victory: detailed insurgency case studies. Rand National Defense Research Inst Santa Monica CA.

Rotberg, R. I. (Ed.). (2007). Building a new Afghanistan. Brookings Institution Press.

Rotberg, R. I. (2003). Failed states, collapsed states, weak states: Causes and indicators. State failure and state weakness in a time of terror, 1-25.

Schaefer, R. W. (2010). The insurgency in Chechnya and the North Caucasus: From gazavat to jihad. ABC-CLIO.

Tettey, W. J., Puplampu, K. P., & Berman, B. J. (Eds.). (2003). Critical perspectives in politics and socio-economic development in Ghana (Vol. 6). Brill.

Tsikata, D., & Seini, W. (2004). Identities, Inequalities and Conflicts in Ghana. CRISE workingpaper. Oxford: CRISE.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Otoritas : Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Creative Commons License

Otoritas : Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
View My Stats