The Role of ICT in Addressing Corruption Across Political Regimes

Mergen Dyussenov

Abstract


The paper reviews existing literature on the role of the internet in addressing corruption by breaking it down into instrumental, important, and critical roles, across two types of political regimes – (semi-)authoritarian and democracies. It analyzes the key resources and strategies utilized by governments and activists across these regimes, and looks into the common themes that emerge as a result of analyzing literature sources, i.e. the notion of crisis, lack of a single accepted definition of corruption across nations, factors found to positively correlate with reduced corruption, and the evolving nature of the internet. The paper finds that neither regime can be perfectly immune against mass-scale protests caused by dissatisfaction with worsening corruption. However, the regimes differ in the nature of protests, with semi-authoritarian regimes witnessing more violent and aggressive uprisings fueled by long-accumulated social disappointment with previous repressive regimes than across much of democracies.


Keywords


ICT; Corruption; Political Regime; Developing Nations

Full Text:

PDF

References


Al-Saqaf, W. (2010). Internet Censorship Challenged – How Circumvention Technologies Can Effectively Outwit Governments Attempts to Filter Content. Alkasir, a case study. Increasing Transparency & Fighting Corruption Through ICT, 71.

Bailard, C. (2009). Mobile Phone Diffusion and Corruption in Africa. Political Communication, 26(3),

Bard, M. (2010). The Start of a Great Shift. In: Fine, R., (ed.), The Big Book of Social Media: Case studies, stories, perspectives (pp. 5-7). Yorkshire Publishing

Bertot, C.J., Jaeger, P. T., & Grimes, J. M. (2012). Promoting Transparency and Accountability Through ICTs, Social Media, and Collaborative E-government. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 6(1), 78-91.

Bertot, C.J. Jaeger, P., Grimes, J. (2010). Using ICTs to create a culture of transparency: E-government and social media as openness and anti-corruption tools for societies, University of Maryland.

Bhatnagar, S. (2002). E-Government and Access to Information. Global Corruption 1, 24-32.

Biygautane, M. (2015). Anti-Corruption Strategies in the Gulf Cooperation Council’s States: Lessons learned and the path forward. In: Zhang & Lavena (Eds.), Government Anti-Corruption Strategies: A cross-cultural perspective (pp.187-214). CRC Press

Bouwman, R. B., & Grimmelikhuijsen, S. G. (2016). Experimental Public Administration from 1992 to 2014: A systematic literature review and ways forward. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 29(2). 110-131.

Breuer, A. (2012, October). The Role of Social Media in Mobilizing Political Protest: Evidence from the Tunisian Revolution. German Development Institute

Brym, R., Godbout, M., Hoffbauer, A., Menard, G. & Zhang, T. (2014). Social Media in the 2011 Egyptian Uprising. The British Journal of Sociology, 65(2).

Brunty, J., Helenek, K. (2013). Social Media Investigation for Law Enforcement [electronic resource]. Cincinnati, Ohio: Anderson.

Charoensukmongkol, P., &Moqbel, M. (2014). Does investment in ICT curb or create more corruption? A cross-country analysis. Public Organization Review, 14(1), 51-63.

Dada, D. (2006). The failure of E‐government in developing countries: A literature review. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 26(1), 1-10.

De Sousa, L. (2009, July 7). Anti-corruption Agencies: between empowerment and irrelevance. Springer Science + Business Media B.V. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10611-009-9211-3

Eltantawy, N. &Wiest, J. (2011). Social Media in the Egyptian Revolution: Reconsidering Resource Mobilization Theory. International Journal of Communication 5, 1207-1224

Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (1999, Dec 7). WTO Coverage: Prattle in Seattle. http://fair.org/take-action/media-advisories/wto-coverage-prattle-in-seattle/

Farazmand, A. (2001). Handbook of Comparative and Development Public Administration (2nd, rev. and expand ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker.

Fine, R. (2010). The big book of social media: Case studies, stories, perspectives. Yorkshire Pub.

Friedman, T. (2011). 2011 Speaker – Thomas Friedman.Tulane University. Available at: https://tulane.edu/grads/speakers-thomas-friedman.cfm

Gengler, J. (2012, Jan 17). Bahrain's Sunni Awakening. Middle East Research and Information Project. http://www.merip.org/mero/mero011712

Ghannam, J. (2011). Social Media in the Arab World: Leading up to the Uprisings of 2011. Center for International Media Assistance

Gilbert, L. & Mohseni, P. (2011). Beyond Authoritarianism: The Conceptualization of Hybrid Regimes. Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

Gronlund, A., (2010). Using ICT to Combat Corruption – Tools, Methods and Results, In: Strand,C. (ed.), Increasing Transparency and Fighting Corruption through ICT,7-31. SPIDER ICT4D Series, 3

Hellstrom, J. (2010). Mobile Technology as a Means to Fight Corruption in East Africa, In: Strand, C. (ed.), Increasing Transparency and Fighting Corruption through ICT, 47-68. SPIDER ICT4D, 3

Hickmann, T., Fuhr, H., Höhne, C., Lederer, M., &Stehle, F. (2017). Carbon Governance Arrangements and the Nation‐State: The reconfiguration of public authority in developing countries. Public Administration and Development, 37(5), 331-343. doi:10.1002/pad.1814

Juris, J. (2008). Networking Futures: The Movements Against Corporate Globalization. Durham, NC: Duke University Press

Kaplan, A. and Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59–68.

Kim, C. (2013). Anti-Corruption Initiatives and E-Government: A Cross-National Study. Springer Science + Business Media New York.

Kim, S., Kim, H. & Lee, H. (2009).An Institutional Analysis of an E-government System for Anti-Corruption: the Case of OPEN. Government Information Quarterly 26, 42-50

Koh, T. H. (2010, October). Corruption Control in Singapore. The 13th International Training Course on the Criminal Justice Response to Corruption. Retrieved from: http://www.unafei.or.jp/english/pdf/RS_No83/No83_17VE_Koh1.pdf

Levitsky, S. & Way, L. (2002).The Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism. National Endowment for Democracy. http://muse.jhu.edu.libproxy1.nus.edu.sg/journals/journal_of_democracy/v013/13.2levitsky.html

Lio, M., Liu, M., &Ou, Y. (2011). Can the Internet Reduce Corruption? A cross-country study based on dynamic panel data models. Government Information Quarterly 28, 47-53.

Nkohkwo, Q. N. A., & Islam, M. S. (2013). Challenges to the Successful Implementation of e-Government Initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Literature Review. Electronic Journal of e-government, 11(1).

Pathak, R., Naz, R., Rahman, M., Smith, R. &Agarwal, K. (2009). E-Governance to Cut Corruption in Public Service Delivery: A case study of Fiji. Intl Journal of Public Administration, 32: 415-437

Pathak, R., Singh, G. &Belwal, R. (2007). Governance & Corruption – Developments and Issues in Ethiopia. Public Organization Review 7(3)

Quah, J. (1982). Bureaucratic Corruption in the ASEAN Countries: A Comparative Analysis of Their Anti-Corruption Strategies, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 13, No. 1 (Mar., 1982), 153-177.

Rasambainarivo, H. (2010). Political Crisis as the Lever-Effect to the Expansion of Social. Media: A Case Study of Madagascar, In: Fine, R., (ed.), The Big Book of Social Media: Case Studies, Stories, Perspectives (pp. 255-259). Yorkshire Publishing

Ritz, A., Brewer, G. A., & Neumann, O. (2016). Public Service Motivation: A systematic literature review and outlook. Public Administration Review, 76(3), 414-426. doi:10.1111/puar.12505

Rose-Ackerman &Truex, R. (2012, February). Corruption and Policy Reform.Yale Law & Economics Research Paper No. 444. Retrieved from: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2007152

Schedler, A. (2002). The Nested Game of Democratization by Elections. International Political Science Review, 23 (1): 103-122

Shah, A. (2006). Local governance in developing countries (illustrated.). Washington, DC: World Bank.doi:10.1596/978-0-8213-6565-6

Shah, A., & Schacter, M. (2004). Combating corruption: Look before you leap. Finance & Development, 41(4), 40-43. http://search.proquest.com/docview/209411436?accountid=13876

Sturges, P. (2004). Corruption, Transparency and a Role for ICT?. International Journal of Information Ethics, 2(11), 1-9.

Tarleton, J. (2009, Nov 19). Why Seattle Still Matters: 1999 WTO Protests Exposed Deep Flaws in Global Capitalism That Remain Unaddressed.The Indypendent.Retrieved from: https://indypendent.org/2009/11/19/why-seattle-still-matters-1999-wto-protests-exposed-deep-flaws-global-capitalism-remain-unaddressed

Transparency International (2014). How Do You Define Corruption? Retrieved from: http://www.transparency.org/whoweare/organisation/faqs_on_corruption

Tufekci, Z. & Wilson, C. (2012). Social Media and the Decision to Participate in Political Protest: Observations from Tahrir square. Journal of Communication, doc. no. 1629

Wang, H., Xiong, W., Wu, G., & Zhu, D. (2018). Public-Private Partnership in Public Administration Discipline: A literature review. Public Management Review, 20(2), 293-316.

Zhuo, X., Wellman, B., & Yu, J. (2011).Egypt: The First Internet Revolt? Canadian Disarmament Information Service (CANDIS).




DOI: https://doi.org/10.26618/ojip.v9i1.1508

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Otoritas : Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Creative Commons License

Otoritas : Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
 
 
View My Stats